Thursday, March 31, 2011

Citrus Cultivation

I. INTRODUCTIONProspect citrus agribusiness in Indonesia is good, because the potential for extensive production land. Through the course of the quality of citrus farmers and supported by the results of technological innovation and natural hormone fertilization, integrated pest management and disease, as well as other farming systems which are all based on environmentally friendly spirit will improve quantity and quality of citrus production while maintaining environmental sustainability.
II. GROWTH CONDITIONSIt should be 6-9 months wet (rainy season), rainfall 1000-2000 mm / yr evenly throughout the year, need adequate water, especially in July-August. Optimum temperature between 25-30 ° C and humidity optimum around 70-80%. Wind speeds of more than 40-48% will be knocked out of flowers and fruit. Optimum altitude of between 1-1200 m above sea level. Citrus do not like places that are protected from sunlight. Andosol soil type and Latosol highly suitable, soil acidity (pH of the soil) is 5.5 to 6.5. Optimal ground water at a depth of 150-200 cm below the soil surface. In the dry season 150 cm and 50 cm in the rainy season. Citrus plants like salt water containing about 10%.III. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES FOR RAISING3.1. Nurseries3.1.1. Generative modeSeeds taken from the fruit by squeezing the fruit that has been cut. Dikeringanginkan seeds in places that are not exposed for 2-3 days until the mucus is lost. Land cultivated seedbed in 30-40 cm and made from 1.15 to 1.20 m-sized map stretching from north to south. Distance plot of 0.5-1m. Before planting, add manure 1 kg/m2. Seeds planted in the groove with a spacing of 1 to 1.5 x 2 cm and immediately doused the NASA POC solution + 1-2 cc / lt of water. Nursery were given a roof. Seeds dipindahtanam into polybags 15 x 35 cm after 20 cm tall at the age of 3-5 months. Growing medium in polybags are manure and chaff mixture (2:1) or manure, rice husks, sand (1:1:1) or simply use ordinary soil watered NASA POC (3-4 cap) + HORMONIK (1 cap) 10-15 per liter of water.
3.1.2. How VegetativeThe method by shoot tip grafting and pasting the eye patch. For both these ways need to be prepared rootstock (understam / rootstock) are selected from citrus fruits with strong roots and broad, high environmental adaptability, drought resistant, resistant / tolerant to viral diseases, root rot and nematodes. Rootstock varieties commonly used are the Japanese citroen, Rough lemon, Cleopatra, Troyer citrange Citrange and Carizzo. After the shoot tip grafting or the attach eye patch, immediately sprayed using NASA POC (3-4 cap / tank) + HORMONIK (1 cap / tank).
3.1.2.1. Media Processing PlantLand to be planted with other crops or cleared of plant debris. Spacing varies for each type of citrus can be viewed at the following data: (a) and Siem Keprok spacing 5 x 5 m, (b) Sweet: spacing of 7 x 7 m, (c) citron (Citroen): spacing of 6 x 7 m, (d) Lime: spacing of 4 x 4 m, (e) Grape fruit: spacing of 8 x 8 m, (f) Large: spacing (10-12) x (10-12) m.Planting hole was made 2 weeks before planting. Land of the inner layers are separated by land from above. Soil from the top layer is mixed with 1-2 kg of manure and Natural GLIO already bred.Natural breeding GLIO: 1-2 Natural packaging GLIO mixed 50-100 kg of manure to land 1000 m2. Furthermore, silenced in a place protected from the sun + 1 week to always keep the humidity and the occasional stirring (reversed).
3.1.2.2. Planting TechniqueCitrus seedlings can be planted in the rainy season or dry season if the available water to water, but should be planted early in the rainy season. Before being planted, needs to be done: (a) Reduction of excessive leaf and branch, (b) Reduction of the root, (c) Arrangements for lest any root position folded.After the seed is planted, fertilizer siramkan NASA POC that has been evenly mixed water with a dose of ± 1 cap NASA POC per liter of water per tree. The result would be great if you use SUPER NASA. As for how to use SUPER NASA is as follows: 1 (one) bottle of SUPER NASA diluted in 2 liters (2000 ml) of water used as mother liquor. Then each1 liter of water was given 10 ml of mother liquor was poured over each tree.Write a mulch of straw, coconut leaves or leaves that is free of disease around the seed. Place the mulch in such a way so as not to touch the stem to avoid stem rot. Before crop production and canopy shade each other, can be planted between the plants either kacang-kacangan/sayuran. After canopy cover each other, interrupted plants replaced by grass / legume ground cover that also functions as an enhancer of nitrogen for citrus crops.
IV. PLANT MAINTENANCE4.1. StitchingPerformed on plants that do not grow.4.2. WeedingWeeds cleaned in accordance with the frequency of growth, at the time of fertilization was also carried out weeding.4.3. PembubunanIf planted in the soil cycle, to consider whether there is soil around the roots eroded. Addition of soil needs to be done if the base of the roots have started to appear.4.4. PruningPruning aims to form a canopy of trees and remove diseased branches, dry and unproductive. From the early buds which grow up leave 3-4 buds at uniform distances which will form the canopy of trees. On further growth, each branch has a 3-4 twigs or multiplication. Clipping scar covered with fungicide or wax to prevent the disease. We recommend that you first dip the pruning shears in alcohol. Diseased twigs were burned or buried in the soil.4.5. Following Fertilization

Age
(years)
Macro Fertilizer Dose (g / plant)
Urea
TSP
KCl
1
80
170
170
2
160
325
250
3
250
500
325
4
325
170
425
5
400
210
500
6
500
250
600
7
600
300
700
8
700
325
780
9
780
390
850
10
850
425
900
>10

Soil analysis should be performed
Dose POC NASA began early planting:
0-3
2-3 cap / diluted sufficiently and around the base of the stem every 4-5 months (occasionally can be sprayed into the leaf)
>3

3-4 cap / diluted sufficiently and around the base of the stem every 3-4 months (occasionally can be sprayed into the leaf)

Note: It would be better punctuated delivery / plus NASA SUPER 1-2 times / year dose of 1 bottle to + 200 trees. How to look at Planting Techniques (Point 3.1.2.2.)4.6. Usage HORMONIKHORMONIK can be given especially after the plants were 2 years old, or granted since the beginning of more good. The way through watering or spraying along with NASA POC (3-5 cap NASA POC HORMONIK plus 1 closed).4.7.Pengairan and WateringDo not over-watering. Plants irrigated at least once a week during the dry season. If the water is less available, the soil around the plant closed digemburkan and mulch.4.8. Fruit thinningAt the time of heavy fruiting orange trees, thinning is necessary in order to support tree growth, fruit weight and fruit quality. Fruit ill disposed includes fruit, are not exposed to sunlight (in the shade of the leaves) and excess fruit in a single stalk. Eliminate fruit at the end of the fruit in a single main stem and leave only 2-3 fruit.V. Pests and Diseases5.1. Pesta. Psyllid (D. citri.)Parts attacked: stalk, leaf buds, shoots, young leaves. Symptoms: kinky shoots, the plants die. Control: use PESTONA or Natural BVR. Spraying carried out before and during germination, remove the affected part.b. Aphids (citridus Toxoptera aurantii, Aphis gossypii.)Parts attacked: young shoots and flowers. Symptoms: leaf roll and lasting until the leaves mature. Control: use PESTONA or Natural BVR.c. Peliang leaf caterpillar (Phyllocnistis citrella.)Parts attacked: young leaves. Symptoms: transparent or silvery circular groove, buds / young leaves wrinkle, roll up, fell out. Control: spray with PESTONA. Then the leaves are picked and buried in the soil.d. Mites (Tenuipalsus sp., Eriophyes sheldoni Tetranychus sp)Parts attacked: stems, leaves and fruit. Symptoms: silvery spots on the fruit or brown and yellow or brown spots on leaves. Control: spray PESTONA or Natural BVR.e. Fruit borer (Citripestis sagittiferella.)Parts attacked: fruit. Symptoms: gerekan hole out fruit sap. Control: Infected fruit picking, fruit sprayed PESTONA at 2-5 weeks old.f. Leaf-sucking lice (Helopeltis antonii.)Parts attacked: buds, young leaves and choke. Symptoms: blackish brown spots with lighter colored centers on young shoots and fruit, accompanied by patches of fruit discharge into necrosis. Control: spray PESTONAg. Thrips (Scirtotfrips citri.)Parts attacked: stalks and young leaves. Symptoms: thickened leaf blade, leaf edges curl upward, leaves at the end of the shoot to black, dry and fall, the scar grayish brown sometimes accompanied nekrotis. Control: keep the plant canopy is not too tight and sunlight into the canopy, avoid using straw mulch. Then use PESTONA or Natural BVR.h. Flea dompolon (Planococcus citri.)Parts attacked: fruit stalk. Symptoms: yellow beam, dry and fallen fruit. Control: use PESTONA. or Natural BVR. Prevent the arrival of the ants as a vector ticks.i. Fruit fly (Dacus sp.)Parts attacked: the nearly ripe fruit. Symptoms: small hole in the middle, fall fruits, small maggots on the inside of the fruit. Control: use the fruit fly traps.
5.2. Diseasea. GOCause: A bacterium like organism with a leafhopper vector D. citri. Part of being attacked: the central cylinder (phloem) and stems. Symptoms: leaves narrow, small, pointed, small fruit, acid, base of damaged seeds and orange fruit. Control: Use seed-free plant GO. The location of the garden at least 5 km from the orange grove that was attacked GO. Use PESTONA or Natural BVR to control vector.b. BlendokCause: fungus Diplodia natalensis. Parts attacked: the stem or branch. Symptoms: The skin of the armpit branches produce attention-gom beetles, wood color so grayish, dry skin and peeling. Control: cutting infected branches. Former NASA POC oiled piece HORMONIK + Natural + GLIO. NASA POC and control Blendok HORMONIK not functioning, but can increase resistance to disease attack.c. Powdery mildewCause: The fungus Oidium tingitanium. Parts attacked: leaves and young stems. Symptoms: white powder on leaves and young stems. Control: Natural GLIO use in the early planting.d. ScabiesCause: The fungus Sphaceloma fawcetti. Parts attacked: leaves, stems or fruit. Symptoms: tiny speck that turned into a cork clear yellow or orange. Control: regular pruning, use the Natural GLIO in the early planting.e. Rotten fruitCause: Penicillium spp. Phytophtora citriphora, Botryodiplodia theobromae. Parts attacked: fruit. Symptoms: wheat-flour are solid bluish green on the skin surface. Control: avoid mechanical damage, use Natural plant starting GLIOf. Root and stem rotCause: The fungus Phyrophthora nicotianae. Parts attacked: root, stem and leaf at the tip. Symptoms: no fresh shoots, dried plants. Control: treatment and good irrigation, soil sterilization at the time of planting, create a patch to a minimum height of 20 cm from soil surface. Natural GLIO use in the early plantingg. Premature fruit fallCause: The fungus Fusarium sp. Colletotrichum sp. Alternaria sp. Part of being attacked: fruit and flowers. Symptoms: two-four weeks prior to harvest fruit fall. Control: Natural GLIO use in the early plantingh. Mushrooms poisonCause: Upasia salmonicolor. Parts attacked: stem. Symptoms: transverse cracks on the trunk and out gom, dry and tough stems exfoliated. Control: infected skin exfoliated and smeared fungicides containing copper or sulfur, then cut an infected branch.Note: If a pest control using natural pesticides can not cope with the recommended use of chemical pesticides. To be more evenly spraying of chemical pesticides and are not easily lost by rainwater add Adhesives Straighten AERO 810, dose + 5 ml (1 / 2 cap) / tank.
VI. HarvestCitrus fruit is harvested when ripe old optimal + 28-36 weeks, depending on the species / varieties. Fruit are picked by using pruning shears.

0 komentar:

Post a Comment

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...
Dahrul, SP. Powered by Blogger.
next page
There was an error in this gadget

  ©Farm - Todos os direitos reservados.

Template by Dicas Blogger | Topo