Thursday, June 2, 2011

Coconut Cultivation

INTRODUCTION 
Declining interest of farmers to cultivate palm commodity actually harm national, because the coconut crop suitability requirements have grown almost in all parts of Indonesia. PT. Natural Nusantara attempt to provide technical guidelines for the cultivation of coconut with aspects of K-3 is the quantity, quality and environmental sustainability, so as to improve farmers' incomes.


GROWTH CONDITIONS- Land that is ideal for coconut cultivation is sandy soil, berabu mountain, and land berliat. with soil pH 5.2 to 8 and has a crumb structure so that roots can develop well.- Sunlight is a lot of at least 120 hours per month, if less than that fruit production will be low.- The most suitable temperature is 27 º C with an average variation of 5-7 º C, temperatures less than 20 º C less productive plants.- Good rainfall 1300-2300 mm / yr. Long drought caused production reduced by 50%, while the high humidity causes fungus disease attacks.- The wind is too loud sometimes harmful plant varieties that are too high especially deep.
LAND TREATMENTProcessing of land that is needed is making the planting hole with a size of 0.9 m x 0.9 m x 0.9 m with the addition of manure and humus. Spacing is good to type in the 9 x 10 m and the type of early maturing 6 x 6 m.

Nurseries- Choose a good, old fruit, soaked with a solution of water + HORMONIK with dose 1 cap per l0 liters of water for 2 weeks, then Seeding seedlings in nursery beds and a depth equal to the coconut fruit, coconut fruit storage with a horizontal layout with a thick pile of 2 / 3 fruit. The distance between seeds 25cm x 25 cm and the seeds will germinate after 12-16 weeks, if more than 5 months did not germinate considered dead / bad seed. Treat seedlings in nursery beds until the age of 30 weeks or leaf 3 pieces. Do watering when the soil is less water.- Seeds are maintained by the NASA POC fertilizer to seedling age approximately 9 months with a dose of 1-2 cc / lt of water splashed perbibit 1-2 weeks once. Do not neglect preventive measures for plant protection from disturbance or livestock by installing wooden fence.
Perform recommended fertilization or fertilization with reference to the following table:

Seed age (months) Fertilizer requirement (g / plant)
N (Urea/ZA)
P (TSP)
K (KCl/MOP)
Mg (Kies)
1
5/10
50
75
100
2
5/10
75
125
150
3
5/10
100
150
200
4
10/15
200
400
400
5
10/15
300
600
500
6
10/15
400
800
750
7
15/20
500
1000
1000
8
15/20
600
1250
2000
9
15/20
700
1500
2500


Note:It would be better punctuated seeding / plus SUPERNASA 1-2 times at an interval of 3-4 months with a dose of 1 bottle to ± 400 seedlings. 1 bottle SUPERNASA diluted in 4 liters (4000 ml) of water used as mother liquor. Then for every 1 liter of water was given 10 ml of mother liquor was for watering each seedling.PLANTING
Plant Age
Fertilizer dose (g / principal)
Urea
(TSP)
RP
KCl
Kies
Borak
When planting - - - - - -
1 month after planting 100 100 100 100 100 100
2 year





- apl I 200 200 200 200 200 200
- apl II 200 200 200 200 200 200
3 year





- apl I 350 350 350 350 350 350
- apl II 350 350 350 350 350 350
4 year





- apl I 500 500 500 500 500 500
- apl II 500 500 500 500 500 500
5 year





- apl I 500 500 500 500 500 500
- apl II 500 500 500 500 500 500

Note:- The first fertilizer should be at the beginning of the rainy season (September-October) and the second at the end of the rainy season (March-April)- Kocorkan or flush SUPERNASA dose of 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water per tree every 3-6 months once- Spraying NASA POC 3-4 1-2 HORMONIK cap + cap per tank every 2-4 weeks
PEST CONTROL DISEASE1. Group ColeopteraPests of this type is the most attacking Oryctes rhinoceros. How to control by creating a trap / trap in the form of boxes filled with trash and preventively controlled by granting Natural BVR or if it becomes uret with PESTONA, or by using natural enemies of rats, squirrels, chickens, ducks, and owls.
2. Group LepidopteraSpecies that frequently attack is a larvarnya rufivena Tiratabha consuming coconut flowers, and a drill negligens Acritocera flower stalks that have not been open and eat the contents. Control by using pentane + AERO 810 or Natural BVR its rapidly move the control should be evenly distributed to the prevention.
3. Group HemipteraThe kind that suck fluids dead leaves so the leaves are kind of Homoptera (Gareng pong = Java). The other type of fruit that suck fluids are Heteroptera, so that the fruit be shed before maturity. Prevention with pentane + AERO 810 and PESTONA alternately.
4. The disease is also likely to attack are:Bud or bud rot caused by the fungus Phytophthora palmivora and red circle on the leaf diseases caused by worm / eel Rhadinaphelencus cocophilus soil. Both kinds of the disease only by eradication or destruction of plants affected by the attacks.
Note:If the control of pests and diseases with natural pesticides has not been overcome, as the last alternative could be to use chemical pesticides are recommended. For spraying is more evenly distributed and not easily lost by rain water add the adhesive wetting Straighten AERO 810 dose of 0.5 bottles per tank cap

HARVESTING- To type in the coconut, fruit after 8-10 years of age, and age could reach 60 - 100 years with an expected production is copra. For early maturing type of palm fruit after the age of 3-4 years and maximum fruiting at the age of 90-10 years, and could reach the age of 30-40 years is not good for copra due to the soft flesh.- Harvest coconuts done according to his needs. If desired coconut in a state of young coconut fruit maturity approximately 7 -8 months of interest. If you want to take the old fruit to coconut or copra harvested at 12-14 months of age have reached the bloom or if it is no longer heard the sound of water inside the fruit.
POST opponentsProcessing of old coconuts on lately started to lead to the use of pure coconut oil or virgin coconut oil that could increase the selling value of coconut products, or are still in the form of sap (legend = Java) for industrial use of sugar palm, nata de coco, vinegar, beverage products and substrates, and alcohol are also able to increase the selling value of coconut products.- Sugar Palm:sucrose content of the dominant among non-water content of other chemicals as a source of sugar palm juice makes a very last.
- Nata de coco:Coconut juice is processed materials in the form of gels, rubbery texture like kolang kaling, the fermentation process is assisted by Acetobacter mikrorganisme xylium.
- Acetic acid:known as affirming flavors, colors and preservatives as well as limit the growth of bacteria.
- Product drinks:Can be made non-alcoholic refreshments or alcohol in low concentration (palm wine) or in high levels (wine).
- Substrate:Ie nutrient materials that are used to grow microbes. This substrate is necessary for the job in biotechnology lab.

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