Sunday, May 29, 2011

Durian Cultivation

INTRODUCTIONCurrently, demand and price of durian is high, because it provides lucrative benefits for those who cultivate. So planting durian is a good prospect agribusiness. How to raise a good durian is the gateway to success.PT. Natural Nusantara help alternative technical solutions how durian intensive cultivation, resulting in increased yield in K-3, the Quantity, Quality and Environmental sustainability.
GROWTH CONDITIONSDurian grows optimally at an altitude of 50-600 m above sea level, light intensity 40-50%, with a temperature of 22-30 0C, ideal rainfall 1500-2500 mm per year. Suitable land, fertile sandy loam and lots of organic matter content, and pH 6-7.
NurseriesSelect a fertile seeds, fresh, healthy, leaves many, stem robust, free of pests & diseases, 2-4 branching direction and there are new shoots
LAND PREPARATIONThe opening should be on dry land. Clear weeds and other weeds and crops that interfere with the entry of sunlight. Sloping land should be made terraces. Create drainage channels.
PLANTING DISTANCEGeneral spacing of 8 x 12 m or 10 x 10 m
PLANT PROTECTORLarge-scale outdoor plant protector is absolutely necessary, for example lamtoro, turi, Gliricidia, sengon or papaya. Cover crops planted after land preparation.
PLANTING HOLEMake the planting hole the size of 50 cm2. Separate the top soil with the bottom and leave for 2 weeks. Top soil mixed with manure mature 20 kg + 5 g + 10 kg GLIO Natural Dolomite until blended as planting media, and insert the mixture into the planting hole and allow 1 week before the seed is planted.
PLANTINGThe ideal planting at the beginning of the rainy season. Dig a planting hole that contains a mixture of appropriate planting medium seed size. Take the seed and open the plastic wrapper carefully ground. Planted seedlings without roots include limited neck stem. Pour enough water after planting. It would be better SUPERNASA plus organic fertilizer dose of 1 bottle to ± 200 plants. 1 bottle SUPERNASA diluted in 2 liters (2000 ml) of water used as mother liquor. Then for every 1 liter of water was given 10 ml of mother liquor and then pour any tree or SUPERNASA pour 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water per tree.
IrrigationWatering done since the beginning of growth until the plants start producing. At the time of flowering, watering reduced. Watering is best early morning.
PruningCrop of water shoots, branches or twigs that have died of disease and pests, as well as branches that are not exposed to sunlight. When the plant reaches a certain height of 4-5 m, crop tops trimmed.
FertilizationDosage and type of fertilizer depending on soil type and fertility or the appropriate local recommendations, such as the following:

Age (days)
Pukan (kg/ph)
NPK (kg/ph)
Frequency per-year
1 - 3
30 - 50
0,5 - 1,0
3 - 4
4 - 6
75 - 150
1,5 - 2,5
2 - 3
15 - 10
200 - 300
3,0 - 5,0
1 - 2

Fertilization since the beginning of growth until the 3rd year with an NPK fertilizer N levels high.When fertilizing manure once a year at the end of the rainy season or early dry season. While Macro fertilizer according to plant age. You do this by sprinkling rotate the width of the short crop canopy.Pour SUPERNASA organic fertilizer (0-3 yrs) and POWER NUTRITION (over 3 yrs) in a manner appropriate above. Spray 3-4 cap NASA POC + 1 cap HORMONIK per tank every 1-2 months as long as you can reach a syringe.External fertilization SEASONHow to set flowering in each durian tree per block, ie if you want a durian harvest months from August to November, then around March of plants on the block given 1,5-2 singk NPK fertilizer + 1 tablespoon POWER NUTRITION per 10 liters of water per tree and will better spraying plus 3-4 closed POC NASA + 1 cap HORMONIK per tank once every 7-10 days as much as 3-4 times. In addition, approximately 3 months before the planting area should be dried soil. If the drying time it rains, the soil around the plants within a radius of 5-7 meters are made of mulch and water drainage. After the flowers bloom and the fruit or 2 months after anthesis, plants were given a dose of NPK 0.5 to 1 kg per plant. Once formed fruit, try plants do not remove the leaf buds as it can result in seizure of nutrients between fruit and leaves, so the need watering POWER NUTRITION again (1 bottle for 30-50 trees).
PollinationNot all flowers can be a durian fruit because the flowers bloom in the afternoon till night so not many insect pollinators. In addition, not all durian flowers appear simultaneously, whereas pollination successful if pollen and the stigma must be cooked simultaneously. Therefore, artificial pollination needs to be done, how to brush soft brush on the flowers bloom at night. To maximize the quality and quantity, preferably in one area of ​​cultivation is not only one type of specific varieties, but mixed with other varieties.
FRUIT TREATMENTSelection of fruit after 5 cm in diameter. Leave two best fruit, fruit ideal distance from one another about 30 cm. Durian fruit for the first time should be kept one or two items of fruit. To prevent loss of fruit after the fruit was 10 days since formed, even better if given the macro NPK fertilizer (0.5 to 1 kg / tree) plus NUTRION POWER (1 bottle for 30-50 trees).
PEST CONTROL DISEASE1. Stem borers (Batocera sp., Xyleutes sp.)Attack by making a hole in the trunk, branches, or twigs. Symptoms of attack withered crops, dried leaves eventually die and fall off. Control; sanity garden, cut and destroy the stems, branches, or twigs of severe esophageal, close the hole former gerekan with cotton that had been given PESTONA + POC NASA or sprayed.
2. Pod Borer (Tirathaha sp., Dacus dorsalis)Symptom of wormy fruit becomes rotten and eventually fall out. Spray from the start with PESTONA or pentane + AERO 810 since 1 week old fruit, Use Natural METILAT trap.
3. White Lice (Pseudococus sp.)These pests attack by sucking fluids and can be as carriers of disease and the spread of assisted soot moisture ants. Symptoms of curly leaf attacks and miserable, so that flowers and fruit can fall out. Spray PESTONA or pentane + AERO 810 in turn.
4. Leaf caterpillar (Papilia sp., Setora sp., Lymatria sp.)Third worm attacks by eating the leaves so that the holes and damaged. Spray PESTONA or pentane + AERO 810 in turn.
5. Cancer Stem (Phytophthora palmivora)Symptoms of the attack that injured red mucus on the skin of the lower trunk near the ground. After the stem rot, the tops of the plants will dry up, the leaves wither and fall off, and eventually die. Control by sanitation garden, to widen spacing, suppress weeds, pruning, since the beginning before planting GLIO Natural distribute or apply on the wound rod and then cover with paraffin, scrape up brown stems attacked by invisible then spray PESTONA + NASA POC.
6. Root Rot Disease (fungus Fusarium sp.)If split, in the cortex would appear brown and woody in the section will appear in pink with brown spots. Plants attacked and burned and destroyed the former planting hole sprinkled with lime + Natural GLIO, fix the drainage system as well as from the beginning to use the Natural GLIO as a precaution.
7. Leaf Spot Disease (Fungus Colletotrichum sp.)Symptoms of large patches of dry on plant leaves which eventually perforated. Cut the infected leaves, spray Natural GLIO + POC NASA as a preventive use of copper fungicides contain active.
8. Fungus diseases Upas (pink disease)Symptoms of the emergence of yellow fluid on the shaft fell ill and covered with colored threads, shiny mushroom shaped like a spider so that the cause of death in the trunk. Cut the part attacked, reduce humidity, Natural Spread GLIO + POC NASA in the esophageal or fungicides contain active copper
Roots 9.Penyakit White (JamurRigodoporus lignosus)The leaves yellow and then brown before eventually shrivel and fall. Dispose of all host plants from the garden area, use the Natural GLIO as a precaution.
10. Fruit Rot Diseases (Fungus Phytophthora sp.)Symptoms of wet patches of blackish brown on the skin of fruit, and rotten and in the mycelium and sporangia formed attacked white. Use Natural GLIO before planting as a precaution, garden sanitation.
Note: If the control of pests and diseases with natural pesticides has not been overcome, as the last alternative could be to use chemical pesticides are recommended. For spraying is more evenly distributed and not easily lost by rain water add the adhesive wetting Straighten AERO 810 dose of 0.5 bottles per tank cap
HARVESTINGTimes vary depending on the type of crop varieties. Type Monthong approximately 125-135 days after flower bloom, type chanee approximately 110-116 days after anthesis. Durian fruit ripeness perfect experience 4 months after anthesis. Left quotation based on physical signs, such as tip spines dark brown, the lines more clearly between the thorns, the fruit stalks are soft and easily bent, the joints swell the fruit stalk, smells wonderful, and the echoing sound harsh if the fruit had been beaten. How to harvest by picking the fruit on the tree or cut with a knife or gaff berpisau. The part that is cut is the fruit stalk near the base of the stem and try the durian is not until the fall due to reduced fruit quality.

1 komentar:

fajar said...

I really liked the durian fruit. it's also very unique and diverse kinds. but I do not understand, why many people who do not like durian

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